Topic: Other Disease States

Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) pose a serious threat to patients, and hospitals spend billions of dollars each year to reduce and treat these infections. Many HAIs are due to contamination from workers’ hands and contact with high-touch surfaces. Therefore, we set out to test the efficacy of a new preventative technology, AIONX® Antimicrobial Technologies, Inc’s cleanSURFACES®, which is designed to complement daily chemical cleaning events by continuously preventing re-colonization of surfaces. To that end, we swabbed surfaces before (Baseline) and after (Post) application of the cleanSURFACES® at various time points (Day 1, Day 7, Day 14, and Day 28). To circumvent limitations associated with culture-based and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing methodologies, these surface swabs were processed using metatranscriptomic (RNA) analysis to allow for comprehensive taxonomic resolution and the detection of active microorganisms. Overall, there was a significant (P < 0.05) global reduction of microbial diversity in Post-intervention samples. Additionally, Post sample microbial communities clustered together much more closely than Baseline samples based on pairwise distances calculated with the weighted Jaccard distance metric, suggesting a defined shift after product application. This shift was characterized by a general depletion of several microbes among Post samples, with multiple phyla also being reduced over the duration of the study. Notably, specific clinically relevant microbes, including Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridioides difficile and Streptococcus spp., were depleted Post-intervention. Taken together, these findings suggest that chemical cleaning events used jointly with cleanSURFACES® have the potential to reduce colonization of surfaces by a wide variety of microbes, including many clinically relevant pathogens.
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Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease of complex etiology, although dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in chronic immune-mediated inflammation associated with CD. Here we combined shotgun metagenomic and metaproteomic approaches to identify potential functional signatures of CD in stool samples from six twin pairs that were either healthy, or that had CD in the ileum (ICD) or colon (CCD). Integration of these omics approaches revealed several genes, proteins, and pathways that primarily differentiated ICD from healthy subjects, including depletion of many proteins in ICD.
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The human microbiome has been linked to the development of several malignancies, but there is scarcity of data on the microbiome of bladder cancer patients. In this study, we analyzed microbial composition and diversity among patients with and without bladder cancer. Samples were collected from 38 urothelial carcinoma (UC) patients and 10 noncancer controls from August 2018 to May 2019.
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There is incomplete knowledge of the impact of bone marrow cells on the gut microbiome and gut barrier function. We postulated that diabetes mellitus and systemic ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) deficiency would synergize to adversely impact both the microbiome and gut barrier function. Bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing and metatranscriptomic analysis were performed on fecal samples from wild-type, ACE2-/y, Akita (type 1 diabetes mellitus), and ACE2-/y-Akita mice.
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It is unclear whether the favorable effects of walnuts on the gut microbiota are attributable to the fatty acids, including α-linolenic acid (ALA), and/or the bioactive compounds and fiber. This study examined between-diet gut bacterial differences in individuals at increased cardiovascular risk following diets that replace SFAs with walnuts or vegetable oils. Forty-two adults at cardiovascular risk were included in a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding trial that provided a 2-wk standard Western diet (SWD) run-in and three 6-wk isocaloric study diets: a diet containing whole walnuts (WD; 57-99 g/d walnuts; 2.7% ALA), a fatty acid-matched diet devoid of walnuts (walnut fatty acid-matched diet; WFMD; 2.6% ALA), and a diet replacing ALA with oleic acid without walnuts (oleic acid replaces ALA diet; ORAD; 0.4% ALA).
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