Characterization of urinary microbiome in patients with bladder cancer: Results from a single-institution, feasibility study

The human microbiome has been linked to the development of several malignancies, but there is scarcity of data on the microbiome of bladder cancer patients. In this study, we analyzed microbial composition and diversity among patients with and without bladder cancer. Samples were collected from 38 urothelial carcinoma (UC) patients and 10 noncancer controls from August 2018 to May 2019. DNA was extracted and processed for 16 S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Alpha diversity community characteristics including evenness and richness as well as beta diversity metrics were obtained. Linear discriminant analysis effect size was used to identify microbial components whose sequences were more abundant. Pairwise statistics provided quantitative assessment of significant distributions among groups.