Antibiotic Treatments for Clostridium difficile Infection Are Associated with Distinct Bacterial and Fungal Community Structures

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common nosocomial infection in the United States, being associated with high recurrence and persistence rates. Though the relationship between intestinal dysbiosis and CDI is well known, it is unclear whether different forms of dysbiosis may potentially affect the course of CDI. How this is further influenced by C. difficile-directed antibiotics is virtually uninvestigated. In this study, diarrheal stool samples were collected from 20 hospitalized patients, half of whom were confirmed to have CDI. Analyzing tissue ex vivo and in duplicate, CDI and non-CDI fecal samples (n = 176) were either not antibiotic treated or treated with metronidazole, vancomycin, or fidaxomicin, the three most common CDI therapies.