Research

Culture-based methods have been regarded as the gold standard of diagnosis for infectious diseases (Laupland and Valiquette, 2013) and used as an essential tool in determining treatment regimens. However, these methods can take up to 96 hours to identify a pathogen and determine its susceptibility to antibiotics (Afshari et al., 2012). Some organisms, such as the causal agent of Lyme disease, B. burgdorferi, require special media and may take much longer to grow to detectable levels, if they grow at all (Schutzer et al., 2019). Factors that decrease the efficacy of culture-based methods include previous antibiotic treatment, growth media requirements that can be difficult or impossible to replicate, poor sample quality or preprocessing, low microbial load, and minor infection severity (Fenollar et al., 2006; Mancini et al., 2010; Afshari et al., 2012; Blauwkamp et al., 2019). Such methods fail to identify a pathogen as often as 50% of the time (Srinivasan et al., 2015). Situations where culture- based methods fail to identify pathogenic organisms in cases involving infection (culture- negative infections), have been shown to increase the risk of further complications due to uncertainties involving identification of pathogen(s) and associated resistances, which can delay the proper treatment required.
Read the Study
Based on the current evidence, there is no diff erence in infection rates following IM fi xation of long bone fractures using a reamed or non-reamed technique. Using an IM fi xation technique has become the accepted standard in treating long bone fractures. Tibial fractures are the most common type of long bone fracture encountered and therefore are the most studied in the current literature.
Read the Study
Septic arthritis is an orthopaedic emergency and needs prompt surgical treatment. Based on current evidence, there are no clear indications for the timing of surgical intervention in cases of osteomyelitis. The current literature does suggest monitoring disease progression, treatment effi cacy and resolution by trending C-reactive protein (CRP) levels.
Read the Study
Because of their associated poor clinical outcomes, unusual organisms resulting in infection should not be treated equivalently to a usual pathogenic organism. Identification of unusual organisms through molecular and genetic techniques should help aid in antibiotic selection in conjunction with surgery, as indicated. Because of the associated poor clinical outcomes of unusual organisms and polymicrobial infections, the results of these newer techniques should not be ignored, but instead used to help inform therapeutic choices.
Read the Study
Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a poorly understood condition that may lead to progressive destruction of the hip joint. Its incidence is common between the third and fifth decades of life and it is the diagnosis behind 5–18% of annually performed total hip arthroplasties (THAs) in the USA. Regarding the high rate of complications of THA in that age group, authors have agreed on the importance of joint-preservation techniques for this disease but techniques vary to establish a generally accepted algorithmic approach.
Read the Study
The Second International Consensus Meeting (ICM) on Musculoskeletal Infection was held in July 2018 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This meeting involved contributions from an international multidisciplinary consortium of experts from orthopaedic surgery, infectious disease, pharmacology, rheumatology, microbiology, and others. Through strict delegate engagement in a comprehensive 13-step consensus process based on the Delphi technique, evidence-based consensus guidelines on musculoskeletal infection were developed.
Read the Study
Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease of complex etiology, although dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in chronic immune-mediated inflammation associated with CD. Here we combined shotgun metagenomic and metaproteomic approaches to identify potential functional signatures of CD in stool samples from six twin pairs that were either healthy, or that had CD in the ileum (ICD) or colon (CCD). Integration of these omics approaches revealed several genes, proteins, and pathways that primarily differentiated ICD from healthy subjects, including depletion of many proteins in ICD.
Read the Study
The human microbiome has been linked to the development of several malignancies, but there is scarcity of data on the microbiome of bladder cancer patients. In this study, we analyzed microbial composition and diversity among patients with and without bladder cancer. Samples were collected from 38 urothelial carcinoma (UC) patients and 10 noncancer controls from August 2018 to May 2019.
Read the Study
There is incomplete knowledge of the impact of bone marrow cells on the gut microbiome and gut barrier function. We postulated that diabetes mellitus and systemic ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) deficiency would synergize to adversely impact both the microbiome and gut barrier function. Bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing and metatranscriptomic analysis were performed on fecal samples from wild-type, ACE2-/y, Akita (type 1 diabetes mellitus), and ACE2-/y-Akita mice.
Read the Study